Waldemar J. Gallman, Iraq under General Nuri, Baltimore, 1964, pp. In the early 1950s, the United States Government expressed an interest in the formation of a Middle East Command to protect the region against communist encroachment. In the wake of the Pact’s demise, the U.S. signed several defense treaties with Iran, Turkey, and Pakistan, guaranteeing their security against foreign aggression. 24 February 1955: A military agreement was signed between Iraq and Turkey, and the term "Baghdad Pact" started to be used. Formed as an alternative to the existing Socialist International, of which many of its member parties are former or current members. The Decline of the Baghdad Pact (1956-58) 8. (source: Nielsen Book Data) Summary This book explores the formation of the Baghdad Pact and Anglo-American defence policies in the Middle East, 1950-1959. The King of Jordan considered joining, but he could not overcome domestic opposition to the pact. The Council of the Baghdad Pact held its annual meeting in Karachi from June 3 through 6, 1957. The Baghdad Pact was renamed CENTO (Central Treaty Organisation) in 1959 after Iraq pulled out and Ankara in Turkey became its headquarters. The visits were also suspected as being part of a greater plan to include Lebanon in the Baghdad Pact. Following the Iraqi revolution in 1958, the Baghdad pact was renamed CENTO. 1959 March: The new republican regime of Iraq withdrew the country from the alliance. R. K. Ramazani, The Northern Tier: Afghanistan, Iran, and Turkey, New York, 1966, pp. 21-65). It determines the aims with which the pact was established; the failings of the pact, and the struggle that was undertaken against it by hostile countries. Although it was not an official member, the United Statesalso, in effect, participated. The Central Treaty Organization (CENTO), originally known as the Baghdad Pact or the Middle East Treaty Organization (METO), was a military alliance of the Cold War.It was formed in 1955 by Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, Turkey and the United Kingdom and dissolved in 1979.. Unlike NATO, CENTO did not have a unified military command structure, nor were many U.S. or UK military bases established … In 1958, when United States joined, then it was called as Central Treaty organization. Iraq, as the original opponent of Arab nationalism, goaded Cairo to stand in the way of the pro-Western alliance. The Baghdad Pact formally came into existence in 1955; it was an exemplary Cold War agreement reflecting the priority the Eisenhower administration gave to containment of the Soviet Union through collective security agreements. Pact of Mutual Cooperation Between the Kingdom of Iraq, the Republic of Turkey, the United Kingdom, the Dominion of Pakistan, and the Kingdom of Iran (Baghdad Pact), February 24, 1955. Topic. This is a list of international trips made by the Kings of Iran in modern days (20th century). This book explores the formation of the Baghdad Pact and Anglo-American defence policies in the Middle East, 1950-1959. : Baghdad Pact and List of state visits made by Kings of … External links to other Internet sites should not be construed as an endorsement of the views or privacy policies contained therein. The Central Treaty Organisation (CENTO), originally known as the Baghdad Pact or the Middle East Treaty Organisation (METO), was a military alliance of the Cold War. Majid Khadduri, Independent Iraq, 1932-1958: A Study of Iraqi Politics, London, 1960, pp. The Baghdad Pact was a defensive organization for promoting shared political, military and economic goals founded in 1955 by Turkey, Iraq, Great Britain, Pakistan and Iran. 307-50. Each of the four Muslim members of the alliance, Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, and Turkey, faced domestic pressures to withdraw after the United Kingdom joined Israel and France in attacking Egypt. The Shah of Iran was shaken, fearing a similar fate for himself and viewing the upheaval in Baghdad as a “clear and imminent” source of threats to regional stability (Ramazani, 1975, p. 281). Israel responded by invading the Sinai peninsula, and British and French forces intervened. It examines the events surrounding the formation, development and collapse of the pact, and Anglo-American … Answer: In 1955, Turkey, Iraq, Great Britain, Iran and Pakistan signed a pact known as Baghdad pact. In October 1958, the Pact headquarters was moved from Baghdad to Ankara. The United States, which had urged the creation of the pact, became an associate member in 1959. In April, the United Kingdom announced its intention to adhere to the Pact, and it was followed by Pakistan and finally, Iran. 1954 February: Turkey signed a Pact of Mutual Cooperation with Pakistan. Europa-The Middle East, 1960, London, 1960, pp. New!! 274-78. It was difficult to say which Pact countries needed bolstering the most, but there is a critical need of supplying added material benefits to Iraq and Iran. It was formed in 1955 by Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, Turkey and the United Kingdom and dissolved in 1979. 66-87. Idem, Iran’s Foreign Policy, 1941-1973: A Study of Foreign Policy in Modernizing Nations, Charlottesville, 1975, pp. Iraq’s consequent withdrawal from the Pact, henceforth the Central Treaty Organization (CENTO), led to the transfer of the International Secretariat from Baghdad to Ankara, Turkey. Egyptian-instigated agitations against contemplated membership by Jordan and Lebanon were partially responsible for the disturbances in both countries in 1956 and 1957 leading the U.S. and Britain to intervene militarily. In February 1955, Iraq and Turkey signed a "pact of mutual cooperation" in Baghdad to resist outside aggression, and they opened it to other countries in the region as well. BAGHDAD PACT, popular name for the 1955 pro-Western defense alliance between Turkey, Iraq, Iran, Pakistan, and the United Kingdom. Submitted tags will be reviewed by site administrator before it is posted online.If you enter several tags, separate with commas. 4, p. 415. The Council of the Baghdad Pact, meeting on the ministerial level, convened in London on July 28, 1958. It was formed in 1955 by Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, Turkey and the United Kingdom and dissolved in 1979. The Pact’s purpose was the “maintenance of peace and security in the Middle East region” (Preamble) and called on member-states to “cooperate for their security and defense” (Article 1) and to “refrain from any interference whatsoever in each other’s internal affairs” (Article 3). implicitly invited to join, but Israel was excluded. A mutual security agreement called the Baghdad Pact was signed by Great Britain, Turkey, Iran, Iraq, and Pakistan in 1955. This book explores the formation of the Baghdad Pact and Anglo-American defence policies in the Middle East, 1950-1959. Barring such action by USG to swing neutrals into Pact alignment, Prime Minister wants maximum political, economic and military support for Baghdad Pact members especially emphasizing joint responsibility and cooperation in planning.. Developments in the Middle East in the years that followed weakened the Pact. The Baghdad Pact is an aggressive military organization in the Middle East region represented by the states of Iraq (until March 1959), Turkey, Great Britain, Iran and Pakistan. They felt the US and UK were more interested in the pact as an anti-Soviet alliance than as a way of improving the economy of the region. Similarly, it was known as the 'Northern Tier' to prevent Soviet expansion into the Middle East. At the height of the Cold War, the Middle East, with strategic bases bordering the Soviet Union, vital communications links, and significant oil wealth, represented a valuable region for Western interests. This pact, signed in 1955, was a promise by conservative Middle-Eastern nations, like Turkey, Jordan, Iraq, and Pakistan, to remain faithful to the American, non- Communist, camp. At the height of the Cold War, the Middle East, with strategic bases bordering the Soviet Union, vital communications links, and significant oil wealth, represented a valuable region for Western interests. In 1979, the Iranian revolution led to the overthrow of the shah and Iran's withdrawal from CENTO. Iran, Turkey, and Pakistan withdrew in 1979, spelling the end of CENTO. Representatives were present from the five member countries—Turkey, Iraq, Iran, Pakistan and the United Kingdom—and the United States was represented by an observer delegation. Iran preferred to build strong relations with US at the time and signed this pact neglecting Soviet Union offer to sign fifty years non-aggression pact. This article is available in print.Vol. 309-24). CENTO never created a permanent military command structure or armed forces, but the United States provided assistance to its allies in the region. Its goal was to contain the Soviet Union (USSR) by having a line of strong states along the USSR's southwestern frontier. As a result, the other signatories to the Baghdad Pact formed the Central Treaty Organization, or CENTO. ©2021 Encyclopædia Iranica Foundation, Inc. All Rights Reserved. The Baghdad Pact was a defensive organization for promoting shared political, military and economic goals founded in 1955 by Turkey, Iraq, Great Britain, Pakistan and Iran. Iran, Pakistan, and the United Kingdom join the Baghdad Pact. It was renamed the Central Treaty Organization, or CENTO, in 1959 after Iraq pulled out of the Pact. Iran, having abandoned its tradition of third-power policy and having disregarded Prime Minister Moṣaddeq’s experiment with a neutralist approach, wished to align itself with the West. CENTO never actually provided its members with a means for guaranteeing collective defense. The Central Treaty Organisation (CENTO), originally known as the Baghdad Pact or the Middle East Treaty Organisation (METO), was a military alliance of the Cold War. A series of events in 1958, including an Egyptian-Syrian union, an Iraqi revolution, and civil unrest in Lebanon threatened regional stability. BAGHDAD PACT, popular name for the 1955 pro-Western defense alliance between Turkey, Iraq, Iran, Pakistan, and the United Kingdom. The United States signed individual agreements with each of the nations in the Pact, but it did not formally join. By agreeing to this treaty, Turkey improved its relations with Western powers and Iraq strengthened its position vis-à-vis Egypt (Gallman, pp. By the close of the Eisenhower Administration, it had become clear to CENTO members that that the organization was a better conduit for economic and technical cooperation than it was a military alliance. CENTO formally disbanded in 1979. The nature of some of the ongoing tensions in the region, like Arab-Israeli conflict and Egyptian-led anti-colonialism, made it difficult to forge an alliance that would include both Israel and Western colonial powers. Modeled after the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), CENTO committed the nations to mutual cooperation and protection, as well as non-intervention in each other's affairs. Pakistan also withdrew that year after determining the organization no longer had a role to play in bolstering its security. The Baghdad Pact (1955) and the Central Treaty Organization (CENTO) The Baghdad Pact was a defensive organization for promoting shared political, military and economic goals founded in 1955 by Turkey, Iraq, Great Britain, Pakistan and Iran. BAGHDAD PACT (1955) Anti-Soviet security pact sponsored by Britain and the United States.. When asked if he would press for public statements on Durand Line and Kashmir at upcoming Pact meeting in Tehran, Prime Minister said he felt he must do so. After the withdrawal of Iraq from the Baghdad Pact, CENTO moved its headquarters to Ankara, Turkey, and the United States continued to support the organization as an associate, but not as a member. In the debate on the treaty Baghdad Pact Formally known as the Middle East Treaty Organization, this Cold War, anti-Sovietalliance was created in 1955 with Great Britain, Iraq, Iran, Turkey, and Pakistan as members. The Central Treaty Organization (CENTO), also known as the Baghdad Pact or the Middle East Treaty Organization (METO), was one of Cold War’s weirdest and ultimately least successful alliances. Baghdad Pact is similar to these organizations: NATO, Islamic Military Counter Terrorism Coalition, Collective Security Treaty Organization and more. On 24 March 1959, Kassem withdrew Iraq from the alliance and on 19 August 1959, it was announced in Ankara that the name had been changed from the ‘Baghdad Pact’ to the ‘Central Treaty Organisation’, abbreviated as CENTO. Central Treaty Organization (CENTO), formerly Middle East Treaty Organization, or Baghdad Pact Organization, mutual security organization dating from 1955 to 1979 and composed of Turkey, Iran, Pakistan, and the United Kingdom. The Collapse of the Baghdad Pact (1958-59) Conclusion Appendices Bibliography Index. The members of the Baghdad Pact except for Iraq endorsed the U.S. intervention, and in 1959, Iraq announced it was formally leaving the arrangement. Nāṣer opposed the Pact because he perceived it as a threat to his foreign policy objectives and as a tool geared to serve Western political and economic interests. 99-102. (Optional) Enter email address if you would like feedback about your tag. The Baghdad Pact: Origins and Political Setting, London, 1956. A short introduction to the Baghdad Pact – When Britain and Iran were allies For almost 25 years, the UK led an organisation that included Iran, Iraq, Turkey and Pakistan as military allies. For Pakistan, the Pact was intended to balance relations with India and help it benefit from Western economic largesse. This book explores the formation of the Baghdad Pact and Anglo-American defence policies in the Middle East, 1950-1959. The Suez crisis of 1956 created a grave challenge to the fledgling Baghdad Pact. Similar to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization, the main purpose of the Baghdad Pact was to prevent communist incursions and foster peace in the Middle East. It determines the aims with which the pact was established; the failings of the pact, and the struggle that was undertaken against it by hostile countries. Cairo also feared that such an alliance would isolate Egypt and strengthen the pro-British regime of Nūrī al-Saʿīd in Baghdad. III, Fasc. The treaty was open to any Arab nation desiring peace and security in their region. Both Iran and Pakistan became the members of this pact on the basis of their own bilateral strategic relations with US. In response to these developments, the United States invoked the 1957 Eisenhower Doctrine as justification for intervening in Lebanon. The pact also provided for a permanent council to be set up when a total of four members belonged.2 Subsequently the Baghdad Pact, as it came to be called, was over-whelmingly accepted by the Iraqi Parliament. It appealed to its members for very different reasons although the rising influence of the Soviet Union and that of Arab nationalism were widely shared. Its main purpose was to block possible expansion by the Soviet Union into the Middle East. The outcome of the incident was a profound loss of British prestige in the region, which in turn damaged its position of leadership in the Baghdad Pact. The Office of Electronic Information, Bureau of Public Affairs, manages this site as a portal for information from the U.S. State Department. The Iraqi premier considered the Pact as a vindication of his source of power and to demonstrate his allegiance to the West broke diplomatic relations with Moscow in January, 1955. Instead, the United States participated as an observer and took part in committee meetings. Central Treaty Organization (CENTO) earlier Middle East Treaty Organization, or Baghdad Pact Organization Mutual Security Organization dating from 1955 to 1979 and contained Turkey, Iran, Pakistan, Iraq, and Britain. The Central Treaty Organization (CENTO), originally known as the Baghdad Pact or the Middle East Treaty Organization (METO), was formed in 1955 by Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, … Yet, despite the shah’s unquestionable sense of Soviet and Communist danger, he saw a unique opportunity in the alliance for the preservation of his throne (Ramazani, 1975, p. 276). The idea was to conclude an alliance that would link the southernmost member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), Turkey, with the westernmost member of the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO), Pakistan. Council The Ministerial Council of the Baghdad Pact held its second session in Teheran from April 16 to 19, 1956. Turkey and Pakistan signed an agreement in 1954 to increase security and stability in the region. Although the United States was still not a member of the organization, it did sign bilateral military aid treaties with Pakistan, Iran and Turkey, ensuring that it would continue to be active in supporting the CENTO members. Instead, the U.S shifted its focus to the "Northern Tier," referring to the line of countries that formed a border between the U.S.S.R. and the Middle East. This was largely the result of the improbable quintet of nations making up the Organization: Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, Turkey, and the United Kingdom. In 1956, Egyptian leader Gamal Abdel Nasser seized control of the Suez Canal, an important international waterway. Initial attempts to align the emerging states in the area to Britain and the United States having failed (Anglo-Egyptian Treaty of 1936 and Anglo-Iraqi Treaty of 1930), London and Washington initiated a sequence of well-known agreements, including the treaty of “friendship and cooperation for security” between Turkey and Pakistan (2 April 1954); the “military assistance” understanding between Iraq and the U.S. (21 April 1954); the Turkish-Iraqi “mutual cooperation pact” (24 February 1955); the special agreement between Iraq and Britain (5 April 1955) which amalgamated the political-military bloc of pro-Western regimes into the Baghdad Pact (Khadduri, pp. The U.S., having joined the Pact as an Associate member in 1956, exercised great influence in the Economic and Counter-Subversion Committees but received a severe jolt when, in July, 1958, a bloody army revolt overthrew the pro-Western Hashemite monarchy of Fayṣal II, bringing into power the revolutionary Qāsem regime. After the application of the Eisenhower Doctrine in 1958, opposition to the alliance in the Northern Tier emerged among indigenous nationalist groups. See more » List of state visits made by Kings of Iran. Mr. Rountree said that we were really trying to prevent the threatened collapse of the Baghdad Pact, which would be a disaster to the free world. 117-23. It was reported that during its two-day meeting, Secretary of State Dulles committed the United States to partnership in the pact with the United Kingdom, Turkey, Iran, and Pakistan. “Open for accession to any member of the Arab League or any other slate actively concerned with the security and peace in this region” (Article 5), the American-engineered alliance was intended to satisfy several objectives (Europa, p. 102). Yet, London’s membership, intended to replace its 1930 preferential treaty which was about to expire, disappointed many Arab leaders, especially Gamal ʿAbd-al-Nāṣer, who hoped for a neutral Arab bloc between the West and the USSR.
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